Before Gutenberg (1394 – 1468), all books had to be copied by hand. The so-called ‘manuscripts’ of medieval times were laboriously hand-written, usually by monks (1) ... devoted years (2) ... the work. Earlier attempts had been made to produce printing ‘blocks’. The designs on playing cards (3) ... example were carved from wooden blocks which were inked and then printed onto cards. There are even examples of whole pages in books being hand carved and printed. Gutenberg however came up with the idea of printing using, not whole page blocks, but letter blocks. (4) ... he was a goldsmith (5) ... trade, he knew how to mould metal into whatever shape was needed. He made thousands of tiny blocks of ‘type’, (6) ... with a letter raised on it, which could be lined up and clamped into position in a ‘forme’ (page block). The type could be linked, paper laid on top, and the whole thing compressed by turning a handle. When released, the paper had the page printed on it. Years of work went into this invention. Gutenberg (7) ... to make the letters, develop an ink which would cling to metal (most didn’t), build the forme, and above (8) ... find the money to do all this while not working as a goldsmith.